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Documents Reveal Prior Knowledge of Dike Issues Prior to Devastating 2021 Flooding

Officials with the B.C. government were aware of significant problems with dikes for several years before a series of atmospheric rivers flooded the community

Officials with the British Columbia government and the City of Merritt were aware of significant problems with dikes for several years before a series of atmospheric rivers flooded the community, documents released through a freedom of information request show.

The documents obtained by the B.C. office of the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives show a registered professional engineer found numerous problems in 2018 with dikes protecting the community in the province’s southern Interior.

Dike maintenance is a municipal responsibility but with provincial oversight.

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The engineer, Aaron Hahn with the B.C.-based consulting company Interior Dams, reiterated the same concerns in 2019, 2020 and in June 2021, just five months before the flooding that forced more than 7,000 people out of their homes.

Hahn’s 2021 report identified ongoing concerns including “unauthorized excavations and modifications” to the city’s dikes, as well as “excessive” vegetation growth, slumping and the loss of waterside embankment material, and the displacement of erosion protection measures such as rocks used for reinforcement.

The report would be Hahn’s last before torrential rainfall pushed the Coldwater River to overflow its banks in November 2021, causing dike failures, the shutdown of the city’s water system and wastewater treatment plant, as well as extensive property damage amounting to about $150 million, according to the city’s website.

His 2019 checklist described large cottonwood trees and other vegetation as “rampant” along one of the dikes. Its integrity had been “severely compromised,” wrote Hahn, classifying the problem as a “high priority” to be addressed within two years.

Hahn’s 2021 checklist stated the crest of one of the dikes had been “severely eroded” or excavated in one area and identified a “possible sink hole.”

The report, dated June 19, 2021, said “the dikes are in a similar condition to previous years with the exception of minor changes to erosion patterns and vegetation growth,” suggesting no significant work had been done to address the problems.

Hahn’s report recommended “immediate implementation” of maintenance and other activities to address the high-priority concerns.

Reached by phone, Hahn declined to comment further on his findings.

Ben Parfitt, who submitted the document request through his work as a resource policy analyst with the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, said municipal authorities in B.C. are responsible for maintaining their own dikes.

But smaller communities often lack the funds necessary to make repairs, he said.

“The provincial government knows, or ought to know, that the costs of dealing with this infrastructure are in many cases beyond the ability of local government.”

The Union of B.C. Municipalities endorsed a resolution in 2015 that called on the province to take back control of dikes managed by local governments, saying “the administrative and financial resources required to undertake these responsibilities are an increasingly unsustainable burden to small communities.”

The union’s website includes a response from the B.C. government at the time, which outlined its views on why the responsibility should stay with local authorities.

The union, which is the voice of local governments, endorsed a similar resolution in September 2022, saying the previous year’s flooding had “emphasized the need to re-examine the province’s 2003 decision to download diking responsibility to local governments.”

While local authorities are responsible for dike maintenance, Parfitt noted the provincial inspector of dikes has powers under B.C.’s Dike Maintenance Act to inspect any dike and issue orders for necessary repairs or maintenance.

“They can issue orders at any point in time based either on inspections or their read of the (annual inspection reports) provided by the local dike authorities,” he said.

If an order is not followed, the legislation stipulates the B.C. government may take steps to complete the work and recover its expenses from the local diking authority.

Yet Parfitt said the freedom of information request did not produce any such orders from the province in response to concerns about dikes in Merritt.

Parfitt had requested copies of annual dike inspection reports sent to the provincial inspector by authorities in Merritt, Abbotsford, Princeton, Chilliwack and Richmond between 2017 and 2021, as well as any related responses from the province.

The response to Parfitt’s freedom of information request contains nearly 5,300 pages of documents, but he said just one page came from a source within the provincial government—an email pertaining to dikes in Princeton, B.C., about 90 kilometres south of Merritt, where a dike also failed during the 2021 flooding.

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